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REGULATIONS AND NOTES
FOR THE
UNIFORM
OF THE
ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES
1872
COMPILED AND EDITED BY
CAPTAIN JAMES V. ACKER
COMPANY "D"
7TH UNITED STATES CAVALRY REGIMENT
DAKOTA TERRITORY
GENERAL ORDERS, WAR DEPARTMENT
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ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
No. 92. Washington, October 26, 1872
The following description of the uniform of the Army is published for
the information of all concerned, in accordance with the requirements of
General Orders No. 76 of this year.
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE,
Assistant Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.
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THE UNIFORM FOR 1872-1877
In 1872 the U.S. Army changed to a new uniform. To be sure it was a gradual
change, although the general orders covering the change were most complete.
However, uniforms of the old pattern already issued had to be worn out and in the
case of officers, who purchased their own uniforms, many preferred to remain
with that which they had worn through `The Great War'. The new uniform was quite
a departure from that which had been worn before. Up until this time we had patterned
our uniform after the French, but with the defeat of the French in the Franco-Prussian
War, we now looked to Germany for a uniform design. This trend would continue
until the nineties when we adopted the khaki of the British Army. In fact our uniform
of the 1870's was so similar to that of the German Army that Major Anson Mills on
duty in Paris in 1878 was almost stoned by an angry French mob who mistook him for
a German officer
In the 1872 Regulations, mounted men received the plumedhelmet which was to
become a standard part of the uniform for the next thirty years. Foot soldiers and
their officers wore a shako on dress occasions, piped in "the color of the Arm" for
enlisted men and in gold for officers. Enlisted men had a palm palm atop their shako
and officers a feather plume, again these were of "the color of the Arm" except for
those of the Infantry which were white. These shakos were worn until 1881 when they
were replaced by the dress helmet with spike top. The forage cap or kepie for both
officers and enlisted men was now the low crowned "chausser pattern", which up until
this time had been worn almost exclusively by officers. In the past the enlisted men
had worn the sloppy bummer cap or a high crowned kepie. In addition to the hats
already mentioned, officers and enlisted men wore a "fatigue hat' of black felt with
a broad brim. This is the hat often referred to as the "slouch hat" or "campaign
hat". The insignia for the shako and the kepie was much the same as in the Civil War,
but smaller in size. The small hunting horn insignia of the Infantry was not to the
liking of the officers of that branch 2h of service and was replaced in 1875 (G. 0. 96)
by
crossed rifles. They were made of gold bullion for officers and of stamped brass for
enlisted men. The hunting horn insignia was to remain in service for some time to
come however, as the insignia for field or band musician. This was probably due
to the fact that Hortsman brothers had a large supply of this insignia on hand and
had done a good `selling job" on the Quartermaster Department.
The officers coat was also changed. Field grade officers (colonels and majors) now
wore two rows of nine buttons instead of the two rows of seven buttons of the Civil
War period. Company grade officers (captains and Lieutenants) now wore two rows
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seven buttons instead of a single row of nine buttons. The buttons were of the same
design as those worn during the Civil War. They had a flat or recessed shield on the
eagles breast, with officers of Cavalry, Artillery and Infantry having the letter C, A
or I in the shield. It was not until the eighties that the button with a raised shield was
introduced. There were several other major changes in the frock coat and one of these
was the addition of double gold bullion tabs on each cuff, three for field grade officers
and two for company grade officers. The fatigue coat for officers was now a five
button
model with black braid along the edges and a herringbone across the chest, at each
button. This coat is illustrated in Plate 5. All of the braid was to be removed in
1875 according to G.O. 96, however, many officers continued to wear the herringbone
model long after this date. The enlisted man's fatigue coat was quite a change. In the
1872 Regulations it calls for a "dark blue blouse of navy flannel, according to the
pattern. This coat was actually the pleated model shown in Plate 4. This jacket
proved to be unsatisfactory and was replaced by a five button blouse similar to the
officers model, but piped `in the color of the Arm" with narrow piping on the collar
and cuffs. This change took place in 1874. An example of this jacket can be seen on
the soldier on the left in Plate 6. This piping would remain on the jacket until 1884
when it was removed, returning in the Spanish American War on some coats, but
this time with piping added down the front edge in addition to that on the collar and
cuffs. Another item to be introduced in the seventies was the overcoat for use in
cold climate. This was the buffalo fur coat shown in Plate 7. The 1872 Regulations
made provision for light weight flannel shirts and trouser for troops stationed in
warm climates, which indicates that the Army was beginning to consider the soldiers
comfort, in its choice of uniform.
Generals wore a distinct uniform, as they had in the past, with rank denoted by the
epaulets or shoulder straps and also according to the way the buttons were grouped on
the front of the coat. Plate 8 shows a Brigadier General in a typical uniform. Although
generals continued to wear the conventional epaulets, other officers wore shoulder
knots
of gold cord in the "Russian pattern" with the pads covered in the color of the Arm
which
was yellow for Cavalry, sky-blue for Infantry, red for Artillery and dark blue for the
Staff Corps. Examples of these shoulder knots can be seen in Plates 1 and 3. On these
pads would be embroidered the rank and regiment of the officer or in the case of staff
officers rank and Corp device.
The uniform for the Signal Service is considered under a separate section
at the end of the regulations. It calls for the only officer of this service, the
chief Signal Officer, to wear the same uniform as that worn by the Adjutant
General's Department, without the aiguillette. The only other specific reference
to a Signal Service uniform we find in these regulations is in the last section
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of the general order under the description of letters for shoulder knots. This calls
for the letter 5.5' in old English for the Signal Service. These letters would have
been embroidered on dark blue cloth, the color for staff officers. Shoulder straps
would have the same color background. The dress hat worn by the chief Signal
Officer was the chapeau, and his fatigue hat was the kepie with the staff officers
forage cap device which was the letters `U.S.' in silver enclosed by a gold wreath.
This kepie insignia was worn until 1878 when G.O. 86 of 3 December provided for
the "Distinctive insignia on cap and shoulder knot will be according to the pattern
deposited in the office of the chief Signal Officer". This type of description, of
course tells us nothing, however, in the 1882 Uniform Regulations under the
forage cap badge for officers of Signal Corp, we find the same wording with a
reference to G.O. 86 of 1878. Therefore in 1882 we may assume that this cap badge
was the same as that which was worn in 1878 In the same 1882 regulations we find
this device illustrated in the line drawings. t is a circular wreath enclosing crossed
signal flags which are bisected by a torch. A complete check of the uniform regulat-
ions and general orders of this period shows no other references to any other cap
badge for Signal Service officers. So according to the regulations the Chief Signal
Officer and in the mid seventies the second lieutenants assigned to the service wore
the "U.S." enclosed in a wreath until 1878 when they switched to the crossed signal
flags and torch in a circular wreath. However in the 1877 Hortsman catalog in the
section which illustrates officers embroidered hat insignia, we find two illustrations
of Signal Corp hat insignia. One , which is marked "old regulation" depicts crossed
signal flags (without torch) within a large open-top wreath. The other, which is
labeled "new regulation", is a device consisting of crossed arrows (like those later
used by the Indian Scouts) enclosed by an almost circular wreath. Neither of these
insignia are covered anywhere in the regulations. We might assume that the "old
pattern" was an unauthorized one, following the changes made in other corps in
G.O. 67 of 25 June 1873. The "new regulation" badge in the Hortsman catalog is
a complete mystery and it is probably the result of the illustrator misunderstanding
the regulations, or it might be an insignia that saw limited use, or perhaps one
that never got into use and was not described in the General Orders but in some
Signal Corp directive instead.
Enlisted men of the Signal Service wore the same uniform as Cavalry "except
that the trimmings and facings be orange". From the one specimen I have examined,
which is now in the collection of the Arizona Historical Society, the color was a
a very deep orange almost bordering on a red. Prior to 1872 enlisted men of the
Signal Service wore a Cavalry uniform with the crossed signal flags device on the
sleeve (G.O. 88, A.G.O, 22 October 1868).
The sword-belt plate for all officers and enlisted men is the so-called "eagle
plate" of a silver wreath enclosing the Arms of the United States. However from
about 1874 enlisted men wore a brass buckle with a raised "U.S." enclosed in an
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oval, the overall shape of the buckle being rectangular. Officers continued to use
the same pattern plate as described in the regulations, a similar plate being used
today.
The next book to be published in this series will be the military section of the
1877 Hortsman Brothers catalog mentioned above. This will be followed by the
1889 and 1899 Uniform Regulations including the illustrations done by Ogden for
both these regulations.
December 1971 J. N.J.
UNIFORM AND DRESS OF THE ARMY
OF THE
UNITED STATES.
UNIFORM, DRESS, EQUIPMENTS, &c.
No officer or soldier of the Army' shall wear any other than the pre-
scribed uniform, when on duty.
COATS.
FULL DRESS FOR OFFICERS.
All officers shall wear a double-breasted frock coat of dark blue cloth,
the skirt to extend from one-half to three-fourths the distance from the
hip joint to the bend of the knee.
For a General: Two rows of buttons on the breast, twelve in each
row; placed by fours; the distance between each row five and one-half
inches at top and three and one-half inches at bottom; stand-up collar,
not less than one nor more than two inches in height, to hook in front at
the bottom and slope thence up and backward at an angle of thirty
degrees on each side, corners rounded; cuffs three inches deep, to go.
around the sleeves parallel with the lower edge, and with three small
buttons at the under seam; pockets in the folds of the skirts, with two
buttons at the hip and one at the lower end of each side-edge, making
four buttons on the back and skirt of the coat; collar and cuffs to he of
(lark blue velvet; lining of the coat black.
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For a Lieutenant General: The same as for a General, except that
there will be ten buttons in each row, on the breast., the upper an(l lower
groups by threes, and the middle groups by two's.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
For a Major General: The same as for a General, except there,
will be nine buttons in each row, on the breast, placed by threes.
For a Brigadier General: The same as for a General, except that there
will be eight buttons in each row, on the breast, placed by pairs.
For a Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, and Major: The same as for a
General, except that there will be nine buttons in each row, on the breast,
placed at equal distances; collars and cuffs of the same color and mate-
rial as the coat. The upper half of the cuffs to be ornamented with
three double stripes of gold braid running the length of the cuff; pointed
at their upper ends, and with a small button below the point of each
stripe, according to pattern.
For a Captain, 1st Lieutenant, 2d Lieutenant, and Additional 2d Lieu.
tenant: The same as for a Colonel, except that there will be seven but-
tons in each row, on the breast, and two stripes on the cuffs.
For all Storekeepers: A single -breasted coat, as lately worn by Cap.
tains of the staff, with staff shoulder-straps to indicate rank.
This coat shall be worn on all dress `occasions, such as reviews, inspec-
tions, dress parades, guards, and court-martials. It will be habitually
worn at battalion drills, except in hot weather, or when otherwise excep-
tionally directed by the commanding officer.
UNDRESS FOR OFFICERS.
For fatigues, marches, squad and company drills, and other drills when
authorized by the commanding officer, and for ordinary wear: A sack
coat of dark blue cloth or serge; falling collar; single breasted, with
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five buttons in front, same as those worn on the dress coat; `with black
braid, one .fourth of an inch wide, extending from each button and button-
hole back six inches and terminating in "herring-bone" loops.
The skirt to extend from one-third to two -thirds the distance from the
hip joint to the bend of the knee, and to be slashed at the hip on each
side; a knot of black braid, one-fourth of an inch wide, on the upper
part of the cuff, according to pattern.
The shoulder-straps will always be worn with it. Black braid binding,
one-half of an inch wide, around edge of coat.
For Storekeepers: Of pattern above described, but without braid.
For Chaplain: Plain black frock coat with standing collar; one row
of nine black buttons on the breast, with "herring-bone" of black braid
around the buttons and button-holes.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
COATS.
FOR ENLISTED MEN.
For Infantry: Single-breasted, dark blue basque, according to pattern
deposited in Quartermaster General's Office, piped with sky blue; collar
same height as for officers' coat, faced with sky-blue cloth four inches
back on each aide, cut square to book up close in front; number of regi-
ment or badge of corps in yellow metal in middle of sky blue facing of
collar on each side; skirt of coat on each side of opening behind to be
faced with sky-blue cloth, ornamented with four buttons, as per pattern.
Two straps of dark blue cloth, piped with the same color as the facings,
let into the waist-seam on each side the coat and buttoning above the hip
to sustain the waist-belt; shoulder-straps of cloth the color of the facings
let into the shoulder-seam and to button over the shoulder-belts at the
collar-seam with one button; shoulder-straps for Engineer soldiers to be
scarlet, piped with white.
For Enlisted Men of Artillery, Engineer., and Ordnance: Same as for
Infantry, except that the facings shall be scarlet for Artillery, scarlet and
white for Engineers, and crimson for Ordnance.
For Cavalry and Light Artillery: Same as for Infantry, excepting
that it is shorter in the skirt, and the facing upon the skirt put on differ-
ently, according to pattern in the Quartermaster General's Office; facings
for Cavalry yellow, and for Light Artillery red.
Coats for Musicians: Ornamented on the breast with braid same color
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as the facings, running from the button as now worn, the outer extreme-
ties terminating in "herring-bones" and the braid returning back to the
buttons.
Coats for Hospital Stewards: Same as for Infantry, except the facings'
to be of emerald green.
Coat. for Ordnance Sergeants; Same as for enlisted men of Ordnance.
Whenever the dress coat is worn by enlisted men, it will invariably be
buttoned up and hooked at the collar.
For fatigue purposes, for general wear, and on field service: A dark
blue blouse of navy flannel, according to the pattern deposited in the
Quartermaster General's Office.
Blouses for winter wear to be lined.
BUTTONS.
The same as now worn for all Officers and enlisted men.
Storekeeper, : General Stall' button.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
TROUSERS.
For General Officers, Officers of the General Staff, and Staff Corps.
Dark blue cloth, plain, without stripe, welt, or cord.
For all Regimental Officers of Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry: Light
blue cloth, same shade of color as prescribed for enlisted men, with stripe
one and one-half inches wide, welted at the edges; color, that of facings
of their respective arms, except infantry, which will be dark blue.
Storekeepers: Dark blue cloth, with black stripe one and one-half
inches wide.
For Chaplains: Plain black.
For Enlisted Men of all Arms and of the Ordnance Department: Sky
blue mixture, pattern now worn; waistband three and a half inches
wide, to button with two buttons in front; pockets in front, opening at top.
Sergeants to wear a stripe one inch Wide, color of facings ; and Cor-
porals to wear a stripe one-half inch wide, color of facings, except
Infantry, which will be dark blue.
For Engineers: According to pattern in Quartermaster General's Office.
For Ordnance Sergeants: Crimson stripe, one inch and one-quarter wide.
For Hospital Stewards: Emerald green stripe, one inch and one-quarter
wide.
All stripes to be of cloth.
One-third of the trowsers of' enlisted men issued on requisition shall
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be sent to posts cut out but not made up. The material of each pair Of
trowsers, with the buttons, thread, needles, and all necessary trimmings,
shall be rolled up in a bundle, securely fastened and marked with the
size of the trowsers.
Trowsers for all mounted men to be re-enforced.
There shall be a 5th size, larger than No. 4.
CRAVATS.
For all Officers: Black; the tie not to be visible at the opening of the
collar. Neither cravats nor stocks will be worn by enlisted men when
on duty.
BOOTS AND SHOES.
For all Officers : Shall be of black leather and come above the ankle,
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
For Enlisted Men of Cavalry and Light Artillery: Boots, to conic
shove the swell of the calf of the leg; shoes, Jefferson rights and lefts,
according to pattern.
For Enlisted Men of Artillery, Infantry, Engineers, and Ordnance, and
all other Enlisted Men: Jefferson rights and lefts, according to pattern.
Top-boots may be worn by mounted men.
HAT OR CAP (FULL DRESS).
For General Officers, Officers of the General Staff, and Staff Corps:
Chapeau, according to pattern
For Officers of Light Artillery and Cavalry: Black felt helmet, with
gold cords and tassels, and gilt trimmings, according to pattern.
For all Storekeepers: Forage Cap of dark blue cloth, without braid;
badge same as for General Officers.
For all other Officers : Of dark blue cloth, ornamented with gold braid
and trimmings, according to pattern.
For Enlisted Men of Light Artillery and Cavalry: Black felt helmet,
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same pattern as for officers, with cords and tassels of mohair-red for
Light Artillery and yellow for Cavalry. Helmet, ornamented with
yellow metal trimmings, as per pattern.
For all other Enlisted Men: Of blue cloth, same pattern as for officers,
ornamented with mohair braid of the same color as facings of the coat;
trimmings of yellow metal, according to pattern.
FORAGE CAP.
For General Officers: Of dark blue cloth, chasseur pattern, with black
velvet band and badge in front.
For all other Commissioned Officers: Of dark blue cloth, chasseur
pattern, with badge of corps or regiment in front, top of badge to be
even with top of cap, and according to pattern in Quartermaster General's
Office.
For all Enlisted Men.: Of plain blue cloth, same pattern as for officers,
with badge of corps or letter of company of yellow metal worn in front
as for officers.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
PLUMES AND POMPONS FOR ENLISTED MEN.
For Artillery: Red pompon, pattern shape; ball and socket of yellow
metal.
For Infantry: White pompon, same shape and with same ball and
socket as for Artillery.
For Ordnance: Crimson pompon, same ball and socket as for Artillery.
For Engineer Troops: Red pompon, with white top; same ball and
socket as for Artillery.
For Light Artillery: Red; and for Cavalry, yellow horse-hair plume,
same size and length as for officers; socket according to pattern.
SPURS.
For all Mounted Officers: Yellow metal or gilt.
For all Mounted Men Of yellow metal, plain surface.
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GLOVES.
The General Officers, Officers of the General Staff and Staff Corps:
Buff or white gauntlets or gloves.
For Field Officers of Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry; for Officers of
Light Artillery and Cavalry White gauntlets or gloves. All other
Officers, white gloves.
For all Enlisted Men: Of white Berlin, to be issued as clothing.
SASH.
For General Officers: Buff silk net, with silk bullion fringe ends;
sash to go twice around the waist and to tie behind the left hip, pendent
part not to extend more than eighteen inches below the tie.
SWORD-BELT.
For all Officers : A waist-belt, not less than one and one-half nor
more than two inches wide, with slings of the same material as the belt,
with a hook attached to the belt on which to hang the sword.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
The belt to be worn outside the full dress coat and underneath the undress sack.
For General Officers: Of red Russia leather, with three stripes of gold
embroidery, as per pattern now worn.
For all Field Officers: One broad stripe of gold lace on black enameled
leather, according to pattern.
For all Officers of the General Staff, and Staff Corps, below the rank
of Field Officers: Four stripes of gold, interwoven with black silk, lined
with black enameled leather, according to pattern.
For Company, Officers of Cavalry, Artillery and Infantry: Four stripes
of gold lace, interwoven with silk of the same color as the facings of
their arms of service, and lined with black enameled leather.
For all Storekeepers: Of black enameled leather, of patterns lately worn.
On undress duty, marches, and campaigns, officers may wear a plain
black leather belt.
For all Non-Commissioned Officers: Plain black leather
SWORD-BELT PLATE.
For all Officers and Enlisted Men: Gilt, rectangular, two inches wick,
with a raised bright rim ; a silver wreath of laurel encircling the "Arms
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of the United States;" eagle, shield. scroll, edge of cloud and ray-
bright. The motto "E pluribus unum" upon the scroll; stars also of
silver, according to pattern.
SWORD AND SCABBARD.
General Officers: Straight sword, gilt hilt, silver grip; brass or steel
scabbard, same as now worn.
For Officers of Light Artillery and Cavalry: Sabre and scabbard as
now worn, and according to pattern in Ordnance Department.
For Officers of the Pay and Medical Departments: Small sword and scab-
bard, according to pattern in the Surgeon General's Office, as now worn.
For all other Officers: Same as the small, straight sword now worn by
the officers of the General Staff, and according to pattern in the Ord-
nance Department.
The sword and sword-belt will be worn upon all occasions of duty
except stable and fatigue.
When not on military duty, officers may wear swords of honor, or the
prescribed sword, with a scabbard, gilt, or of leather with gilt mountings.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
SWORD-KNOT.
For General Officers: Gold cord, with acorn end.
For all other Officers: Gold lace strap, with gold .bullion tassel, as now
worn.
EPAULETTES.
For the General of the Army: Of gold, with solid crescent; device-
two silver embroidered stars, with five rays each, one and one-half inches
in diameter, and the Arms of the United States" embroidered in gold
placed between them.
For a Lieutenant General: Three silver embroidered stars of five rays
each, respectively, one and one-half, one and one-quarter, one and one-
eighth inches in diameter. The largest placed in the centre of the cres-
cent; the others, placed longitudinally on the strap and equidistant,
ranging in order of size from the crescent.
For a Major General: Same as for Lieutenant General, omitting smallest
star, and the smaller of the two remaining stars placed in the centre of
the strap.
For a Brigadier General : Same as for a Lieutenant General, omitting all
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but the largest star.
SHOULDER-KNOTS.
For Officers of the Adjutant General's and Inspector General's Depart-
ments, and for Aides-de-Camp to General Officers : * Of gold cord, Rus-
sian pattern, on dark blue cloth ground; insignia of rank and letters of
corps or designation of regiment embroidered on the cloth ground, ac-
cording to pattern; an aiguillette of gold cord to be worn with the right
shoulder-knot and permanently attached thereto, according to pattern.
For Officers of other Staff Corps: Same as above described, without
the aiguillette.
For Officers of Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry: Of the same pattern
as for the Staff Corps, but on cloth of the same color as the facings of
their arm, with insignia of rank and number of regiment embroidered
on the cloth ground, according to pattern.
* See Miscellaneous.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
For Regimental Adjutants: Of the same pattern as for other officers of
their arm, but with aiguillettes attached.
INSIGNIA OF RANK ON SHOULDER-KNOTS.
For a Colonel: A silver embroidered eagle at the centre of the pad.
For a Lieutenant Colonel: Two silver embroidered leaves, one at each
end of pad.
For a Major: Two gold embroidered leaves, one at each end of pad.
For a Captain: Two silver embroidered bars at each end of pad.
For a lst Lieutenant: One silver embroidered bar at each end of pad.
For a 2nd Lieutenant: Plain.
For an Additional 2nd Lieutenant: Same as 2d Lieutenant.
The above insignia to be the same as prescribed for the shoulder-straps.
SHOULDER-STRAPS.
For the General of the Army: Dark blue cloth, one and three-eighths
inches wide by four inches long, bordered with an embroidery of gold
one-fourth of an inch wide; two silver embroidered stars of five rays
each, and gold embroidered "Arms of the United States" between them.
For a Lieutenant General: The same as for the General, except that
there will be three silver embroidered stars of five rays, one star on the
centre of the strap, and one on each side, equidistant between the centre
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and outer edge of the strap, the centre star to be the largest.
For all Major Generals: The same as for the Lieutenant General,
except that there will be two stars instead of three; the centre of each star
to be one inch from the outer edge of the gold embroidery on the ends of
the strap; both stars of the same size.
For a Brigadier General: The same as for a Major General, except
that there will be one star instead of two ; the centre of the star to be
equidistant from the outer edge of the embroidery on the ends of the
strap.
For a Colonel: The same size as for a Major General, and bordered
in like manner with an embroidery of gold; a silver embroidered spread
eagle on the centre of the strap, two inches between the tips of the
wings, having in the right talon an olive branch, and in the left a bundle
of arrows; an escutcheon on the breast, as represented in the "Arms of
the United States." Cloth of the strap as follows: for the General Staff
and Staff Corps, dark blue; Artillery, scarlet; Infantry, sky blue;
Cavalry, yellow.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
For a Lieutenant Colonel: The same as for Colonel, according to
corps, omitting the eagle, and introducing a silver embroidered leaf at
each end, each leaf extending seven-eighths of an inch from the end
border of the strap.
For a Major: The same as for a Colonel, according to corps, omitting
the eagle, and introducing a gold embroidered leaf at each end, each leaf
extending seven-eighths of an inch from the end border of the strap.
For a Captain: The same as for a Colonel, according to corps, omit-
ting the eagle, and introducing at each end two silver embroidered bars
of the same width as the border, placed parallel to the ends of the strap,
at a distance between them and from the border equal to the width of
the border.
For a lst Lieutenant: The same as for a Colonel, according to corps,
omitting the eagle, and introducing at each end one silver embroidered
bar of the same width as the border, placed parallel to the ends of the
strap, at a distance from the border equal to its width.
For a 2d Lieutenent: The same as for a Colonel, according to corps,
omitting the eagle.
For an Additional 2d Lieutenant: The same as for a 2d Lieutenant.
Officers serving in the field may dispense with the prescribed insignia
of rank on their horse equipments, and may wear overcoats of the same
color and shape as those of the enlisted men of their commands, and
omit epaulettes, shoulder-knots, or other prominent marks likely to
attract the fire of sharpshooters; but all officers must wear the prescribed
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buttons, stripes, and shoulder-straps, to indicate their corps and rank.
The shoulder-strap will be worn whenever the epaulette or shoulder-
knot is not.
CHEVRONS.
The rank of non-commissioned officers will be marked by chevrons
upon both sleeves of the uniform coat and overcoat, above the elbow;
of cloth of the same color as the facings of the uniform coat, divided into
bars a half inch wide by black silk stitching, except for Engineers, which
will be white stitching and piped with white, points down, according to
new patterns in Quartermaster General's Office, as follows:
For a Sergeant Major: Three bars and an arc.
For a Quartermaster Sergeant: Three bars and a tie of three bars.
For a Principal Musician: Three bars and a bugle.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
For an Ordnance Sergeant: Three bars and a star.
For a Hospital Steward: A half chevron of emerald green cloth one
and three-fourths inches wide, piped with yellow cloth, running obliquely
downward from the outer to the inner seam of the sleeve, and at an
angle of about thirty degrees with a horizontal, and in the centre a
"caduceus" two inches long, the bead toward the outer seam of the
sleeve.
For a lst Sergeant: Three bars and a lozenge.
For a Battalion or Company Quartermaster Sergeant: Three bars and
a tie of one bar.
For a Sergeant: Three bars.
For a Corporal: Two bars.
For a Pioneer: Two crossed hatchets, of cloth, same color and material
as the facings of the uniform coat, to be sewed on each sleeve, above the
elbow, in the place indicated for a chevron (those of a corporal to be just
above and resting on the chevron), the head of the hatchet upward, its
edge outward, of the following dimensions, viz:
Handle, four and one-half inches long, one-fourth to one-third of au
inch wide.
Hatchet, two inches bug, one inch wide at the edge.
To indicate service : All non-commissioned officers, musicians and pri-
vates, who have served faithfully for one term of enlistment, will wear
as a mark of distinction upon both sleeves of the uniform coat, below
the elbow, a diagonal half chevron, one-half inch wide, extending from
Page 17
seam to seam, the front end nearest time cuff; and one-half inch above the
point of the cuff, to be of the same color as the edging on the coat.
In like manner an additional half chevron, above and parallel to the
first, for every subsequent term of enlistment and faithful service. Dis-
tance between each chevron one-fourth of an inch.
Service in war will be indicated by a white stripe on each side of the
chevron for Artillery, and a red stripe for all other corps, the stripe to
be one-eighth of an inch wide.
OVERCOAT.
For General Officers: Of dark blue cloth, closing by menus of four
frog buttons of black silk and loops of black silk cord; cord down the
breast, and at time throat by a long loop "a echelle," without tassel or
plate, on the left side, and a black silk frog button on the right; cord for
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
the loops fifteen hundredths of an inch in diameter;back, a single piece,
slit up from the bottom from fifteen to seventeen inches, according to the
height of the wearer, and closing at will by buttons, and button-holes cut
in a concealed flap; collar of the same color and material as the coat,
rounded at the edges, and to stand or fail; when standing to be about
five inches high; sleeves loose, of a single piece and round at the bottom,
without cuff or slit; lining woolen; around the front and lower borders,
the edges of the pockets, the edges of the sleeves, collar, and slit in the
back, a flat braid of black silk one-half an inch wide; and around each
frog button on the breast a knot two and one-quarter inches in diameter,
of black silk cord, seven hundredths of an inch in diameter, cape of the
same color and material as the coat, removable at the pleasure of the
wearer, and reaching to the cuff of the coat sleeve when the arm is
extended; coat to extend down the leg from six to eight inches below
the knee, according to height.
To indicate rank: There will be on both sleeves, near the lower edge,
a knot of flat black silk braid, not exceeding one-eighth of an inch in
width, and composed of five braids, double knot.
For all other Officers: Dark blue close fitting double-breasted surtout
coat, with a cape. made to detach from the coat and fall to the tips of the
fingers when the arm and hand are extended; the skirt of the coat for
mounted officers to reach half way between the knee and the sole of the
foot; for dismounted officers, three inches below the knee.
The coat to have seven buttons on each breast of the same pattern as
Page 18
those on the uniform coat. The insignia of rank on the sleeve, as fol-
lows, viz:
Colonel, five braids, single knot.
Lieutenant Colonel, four braids, single knot..
Major, three braids, single knot.
Captain, two braids, single knot.
1st Lieutenant, one braid, single knot.
2d Lieutenant and Additional 2d Lieutenant, without braid.
Military Storekeepers and Chaplains, without braid.
On the frontier and campaign, officers may wear the soldier's overcoat,
with insignia of rank on the sleeve.
For Enlisted Men of all arms: Of sky blue cloth of the pattern now
used in the mounted service.
DRESS 0F THE ARMY.
OTHER ARTICLES OF CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENTS.
Flannel shirt, drawers, stockings, and stable-frock: The same as now
furnished.
Stable-frocks for Mounted Men: Of white cotton, made loose and
extending well down to the knee, without sleeve or body lining; to
button in front.
Blanket: Woolen, gray, with letters U. S. in black, four inches long.
in the centre; to be seven feet long and five and a half feet wide, and to
weigh at least five pounds; to be made of wool; the blanket now issued
to troops in California to be the standard.
Canvass overalls for Engineer Soldiers: Of white cotton; one garment
to cover the whole of the body above the waist-the breast, the shoulders,
and the arms; sleeves loose, to allow free play of the arms, with a
narrow wristband buttoning with one button; overalls to fasten at the
neck behind with two buttons, and at the waist behind with buckle and.
tongue.
For Cavalry and Light Artillery: White cotton overalls, to cover only
the waist. These overalls are to be worn at all stable duties.
Sets of stencil plates of letters and numbers of two sizes (inch and
half inch), for marking equipments, &c., shall be furnished by the
Quartermaster's Department to each company commander and regi-
mental adjutant.
SIGNAL SERVICE
Page 19
For the Chief Signal Officer: The same uniform as for the Adjutant
General's Department, without the aiguillettes.
The uniform of the Enlisted Men of the Signal Service shall be as
follows:
The Cavalry uniform, except that the trimmings and facings be orange
instead of yellow, bearing a device on the sleeve of the coat, as follows:
crossed signal flags, red and white, on dark blue cloth; size of flags three-
fourths of an inch square; length of staff three inches, after the pattern
in the office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. This device to be
worn by the non-commissioned officers above the chevrons; by privates
of the first class on both arms; and by privates of the second class on
she left arm only, in the same position as the chevron of non-commis-
sioned officers.
DRESS OF THE ARMY.
HORSE FURNITURE.
FOR GENERAL OFFICERS AND THE GENERAL STAFF.
Housing for General Officers: To be worn over the saddle of dark
blue cloth, trimmed with two rows of gold lace, the outer row one inch
and five-eighths wide, the inner row two inches and one-fourth; to be
made full, so as to cover the horse's haunches and forehands, and to bear
on each flank corner the following ornaments, distinctive of rank, to wit:
For the General of the Army: A gold embroidered spread eagle with
two stars and "Arms of the United States" between them.
For Lieutenant General: A gold embroidered spread eagle and three
stars.
For Major Generals: A gold embroidered spread eagle and two stars.
For Brigadier Generals: A gold embroidered spread eagle and one
star.
Saddle-cloth for General Staff Officers, and Officers of the Staff Corps:
Dark blue cloth, of sufficient length to cover the saddle and holsters.
and one foot ten inches in depth, with an edging of gold lace one inch
wide.
For all other Officers: Dark blue felt, according to pattern; worn under
the saddle and trimmed around the edges with cloth one and one-half
inches wide, color as follows:
Infantry, sky blue.
Artillery. scarlet.
Cavalry, yellow.
For Infantry, Cavalry, and horse equipments, knapsacks, haversacks,
&c.. and tools and materials for Cavalry, according to patterns in Ord-
Page 20
nance Office. See Ordnance Memoranda No. 13, and General Orders
No. 60, War Department, series of 1872.
MILITARY ACADEMY.
The uniform of the Professors and Sword Master at the West Point
Military Academy shall be the same as now worn, excepting they will
be permitted to wear the dark blue sack coat prescribed for Army officers,
with the buttons Of the General Staff to be worn on both coats.
FOR CADETS.
The same uniform as now worn.
DRESS OP THE ARMY.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Aides-de-Camp and the Military Secretary, who have increased rank,
will wear the aiguillette with the uniform of the General Staff.
Aides-de-Camp to Major and Brigadier Generals will wear the aiguil-
lette with the uniform of their Regiments and Corps.
Whenever the full dress coat is worn by officers on duty the prescribed
epaulettes or shoulder-knots will be attached. Letters to be embroidered
on shoulder-knots in old English:
A.D. Adjutant General's Department.
I.G. Inspector General's Department.
J.A. Bureau of Military Justice.
S.S. Signal Service.
Q.D. Quartermaster's Department.
S.D. Subsistence Department.
M.D. Medical Department.
P.D. Pay Department.
E.C. Engineer Corps.
O.D. Ordnance Department.
Sashes will no longer be worn by officers below the grade of Brigadier
General, or by non-commissioned officers.
Officers when not on duty are permitted to wear a buff, white, or blue
vest, with the small button prescribed for them.
When the trowsers and flannel shirts now in store shall have been
issued or otherwise disposed of, the troops serving in warm climates will
upon requisitions approved by commanding officers, be supplied with
those articles of a lighter texture, but of the same material, cut, and
color as those furnished the other troops of the Army.
Bands will wear the uniforms of their Regiments or Corps. Com-
Page 21
manding officers may at the expense of the Corps, sanctioned by the
Councils of Administration, make such additions of ornaments as they
may judge proper.
NOTE.-Swords of prescribed patterns will be distributed to Arsenals as
soon as manufactured, for sale to officers.
A reasonable time after December 1 will be allowed to officers at remote
stations to enable them to procure swords from the Ordnance Department.
GENERAL ORDERS WAR DEPARTMENT,
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
No. 107. ) Washington, December 14, 1872.
The provisions of General Orders No. 9'2, War Department, Adjutant
General's Office, are hereby so far modified as to substitute for the letters
"A. D.," "E * C.," and "0. D.," upon the shoulder-knots for officers of
the Adjutant General's Department, Corps of Engineers, and the Ord-
nance Department, a solid shield of silver, bearing thirteen stars, accord-
ing to pattern, a silver turreted castle of metal, and a shell and flame in
silver embroidery, respectively. Each of the designations to be one and
four-tenths inches in width by nine-tenths of an inch in height.
On the forage-cap badge for officers of the Adjutant General's Depart.-
ment the designated shield will be substituted for the letters "U. S."
The only uniform required to be worn by Chaplains is that described
under the heading of" Undress for Officers." The braid upon the Chap-
lin's coat to be of the same width and put on in the same manner as
upon the undress coat for officers.
The pompons and braid upon the caps of Hospital Stewards to be of
emerald green, same ball and socket. as for artillery soldiers; the wreath
in front of cap of' brass, inclosing the letters ``U. S.' in Roman, of white-
metal. Other cap trimmings the same as for other enlisted men.
For enlisted men of Ordnance and Engineers the same wreath as for
Hospital Stewards, inclosing the letters ``0. D." and "C. E." in Roman,
of white metal.
The sword belt will be worn outside the overcoat by all officers below
the grade of Brigadier General.
The uniform for Chief Musicians will be prescribed by the commanders
of the regiments in which they serve.
The uniform of the band at West Point will be as now worn.
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
Page 22
E. D. TOWNSEND,
adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.
EXTRACT WAR DEPARTMENT
GENERAL ORDERS
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
No. 38. Washington, March 20, 1873
UNIFORM FOR COMMISSARY SERGEANTS.
Same as for Ordnance Sergeants, except as follows:
Facings, stripes, pompon, and chevron, to be cadet gray instead of crimson. Crescent (points front) of same color as chevron, and
above it, instead of a star. Distinctive badge for coat collar, hat, and cap, to be a crescent of white metal points
SECRETARY OF
WAR:
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL
:
Assistant Adjutant General.
Page 23
GENERAL ORDERS WAR DEPARTMENT
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
No. 67.
Washington,
June 25, 1873.
The provisions of
General Orders No..
92
and
507,
series of
1872, are hereby modified as follows:
1st. Whenever the full dress coat is worn on armed duty, and not in the field, by officers below the grade of Brigadier
General, the shoulder-knots, gilt sword-belts, and, by those officers for whom they are prescribed, the nickel-plated sword-
scabbards will be worn.
2d. Whenever the sack coat is worn on armed duty, the dark sword-scabbard and black sword-belt will be worn by those
officers for whom they are prescribed.
3d. The chapeau will be worn with the front peak turned slightly to the left, showing the gilt ornaments upon the right side.
4th. Enlisted men of the Engineer Corps, instead of a wreath with the letters "C. E.," will wear in front of their caps the
castle with the letters of their companies; and enlisted men of the Ordnance Department, instead of a wreath with the letters "0.
D," will wear in front of their caps the shell and flame; both of the above to be according to patterns in the Quartermaster
General's Office.
5th. The aiguillette, instead of being permanently attached to the shoulder-knot, may be made separate, so as to be attached
to the coat underneath the knot by means of a strap or tongue passing through the lower fastening of the knot.
6th. When not on armed duty, officers may wear the dress coat with the shoulderstraps attached.
7th. The helmet cords will be attached to the left side of the helmet, and come down to the left shoulder, where they are held
together by a slide; one cord then passes to the front-end the other to the rear of the neck, crossing upon the right shoulder and
passing separately around to the front and rear of the right arm, where they are again united and held together by a slide under the
arm; the united cords then cross the breast, and are looped up to The upper button on the left side of the coat.
8th. Chief trumpeters and saddler sergeants will wear chevrons according to patterns in the Quartermaster General's Office.
9th. The fatigue hat will not be worn in garrison by officers or enlisted men except when on fatigue duty.
Page 24
10th. Until further orders, the single-breasted overcoat, with the additional ape,
may be issued to, and worn by, enlisted men of all arms of the service, in hen of the double-breasted overcoat.
11th. The badge of Corps and letter of Company w411 both be worn in front .1
the forage cap by enlisted men of Artillery, Infantry, Cavalry, and Engineers. Enlisted
men of Ordnance will wear the badge of Corps only.
12th. The dimensions of the shield for the officers of the Adjutant General's
Department, authorized by War Department General Orders No. 107, of 1872, will
be according to pattern in the Adjutant General's Office, instead of the dimensions
fixed by the said order. For an Assistant Adjutant General with rank of Colonel, it
will be worn on the bullion of the knot, midway between the upper fastening and the pad.
By ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.
GENERAL ORDERS WAR DEPARTMENT
No. 92. .ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, September 15, 1873.
The Service Chevrons prescribed in General Orders No. 92 of 1872,
from this office, to be worn by enlisted men, will conform in color to the
arms of service in which the soldier served. If he has served more than
one enlistment, in different arms, the Service Chevron will be of different
colors to correspond.
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.
Page 25
GENERAL ORDERS WAR DEPARTMENT,
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
No. 96. Washington, November 19, 1875.
The following changes in the uniform and dress of the Army having,
in conformity with the 100th Article of War, been submitted by the
Secretary of War to the President, and by him approved, are hereby
adopted:
1st. Officers are permitted to wear a plain dark-blue body-coat with
the button designating their respective corps, regiments, or departments,
without any other mark or ornament upon it. This coat, however, is
not to be considered as a dress for any military purpose.
2d. Cap badges for all officers of Infantry will be two gold-embroidered
rifles without bayonets, barrels upward, on dark-blue cloth ground, with
the number of the regiment in silver in the upper angle, according to
pattern in Quartermaster General's Office.
Badge for all enlisted men of Infantry except Field and Band Musicians
the same insignia, in brass, with the letter of the company, also in brass,
above the number of the regiment.
Field and Band Musicians will continue to wear the bugle and letters
as at present prescribed.
3d. This new regulation concerning insignia for Infantry officers will
go into effect on or before the let June, 1876.
The new insignia for enlisted men of Infantry will be issued and worn
as soon as it is received from the Quartermaster's Department, on which
the necessary requisitions will be made.
4th. Undress sack-coats for officers will hereafter be of the same pattern
and material as that now worn, without the black braid, and no slashes
Page 26
at the hips.
The sword and sword-belt will be worn outside the coat.
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.
GENERAL ORDER WAR DEPARTMENT,
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
No. 21. Washington, March 20, 1876.
1...Hereafter the chevrons upon the overcoats of non-commissioned
officers of Infantry will be of dark blue cloth, instead of light blue, as pre-
scribed in General Orders No. 92, of 1872, from this office. Chevrons,
similar to those prescribed for the uniform-coat, will be worn by non-com-
missioned officers upon the sleeves of their blouses.
II...The letter of the company will be placed in the lower angle, and the
number of the regiment in the upper angle, of the cap-badge for enlisted
men of Infantry-prescribed in General Orders No. 96, of 1875, from this
office.
III...Until further orders crossed-rifles, when issued, will be charged
at two cents each, and pillow-cases, when lost, or destroyed by the fault
of enlisted men, will be charged at fifty-four cents each.
IV. ..General Orders No. 120, Adjutant General's Office, 1874, is modi-
fied as follows:
There will be allowed monthly to each company, without regard to its
numerical strength, three brooms and two scrubbing brushes. Company
commanders need not state on the requisitions the number of men in their
companies, nor account on the return of clothing, camp and garrison
equipage for the brooms and brushes issued to them. Brooms will also
be issued by the Quartermaster's Department to post bakeries at the rate
of six per annum for each bakery.
Page 27
By ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
E. D.. TOWNSEND,
Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.
GENERAL ORDERS HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
,
No. 8.
Washington, February 8, 1877
.
By direction of the Secretary of War the following regulation is pub-
lished to the Army:-
Hereafter the cap-badges, numbers of regiments, and letters of corn-
panies will be worn by enlisted men of the Army in the following
manner, viz:
For Light Artillery and Cavalry soldiers-the numbers of their regiments
in the upper. and the letters of their companies in the lower, angles of the
badges of their respective arms upon the forage caps; the helmets and
trimmings according to the patterns now worn.
For Ordnance Sergeants and soldiers-the " shell and flame" on dress
and forage caps.
For Hospital Stewards-the letters "U. S." in white metal, inclosed by
wreath. on dress and forage caps.
For Commissary Sergeants-crescent in white metal,. the points in a
verticalal line, on dress and forage caps.
For Engineers-the castle, with letter of company above it, on dress
and forage caps.
For Artillery-the crossed cannon, with number of the regiment in
upper, and letter of company in lower, angles on dress and forage caps.
For Infantry-the crossed rifles, with the number of regiment. and the
letters of company placed as for Artillery, upon dress and forage caps.
For Field and Band Musicians-bugle, with numbers of regiment in
the center, and the letters of the company above the bugle.
The cap trimmings for enlisted men of all arms and corps will be of
yellow metal, unless otherwise specified.
Page 28
BY COMMAND OF GENERAL SHERMAN:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
ADJUTANT GENERAL
.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General
GENERAL ORDER HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
.
No. 11
Washington, February 12, 1877.
By direction of the Secretary of War the following regulation is pub-
lished to the Army:-
hereafter General Officers above the grade of Brigadier General will
he allowed at their option, to wear the sash across the body from the
left shoulder to the right side.
The sash may be of buff silk and gold thread.
BY COMMAND OF GENERAL SHERMAN:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Adjutant General.
OFFICIAL:
Assistant Adjutant General.

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